from Tropical Africa with notes on the world fauna of the genus
Igor Ya. GRICHANOV
Grichanov, I.Ya. Four new species of Saccopheronta Becker (Diptera:
Dolichopodidae) from Tropical Africa with notes on the world fauna of
S. demeteri sp.n. from Ethiopia, S. fletcheri sp.n. from Uganda, S.
shatalkini sp.n. from Kenya and Zaire, and S. zicsiana sp.n. from
Kenya and Tanzania are described. New records and key to 18 known
species of Afrotropical Saccopheronta are given. 2 Nearctic, 27
Neotropical, and 5 Oriental species of "aberrans" group of Medetera
are transferred to the genus Saccopheronta. Four names are
I.Ya. Grichanov, All-Russian Institute of Plant Protection,
Podbelskogo 3, St.Petersburg-Pushkin, 189620, Russia.
Key words: Diptera, Dolichopodidae, Saccopheronta, Tropical Africa.
Saccopheronta was established by Becker (1914) as a genus of
Medeterinae. In 1923 Becker regarded it as subgenus of Medetera Fisher
von Waldheim. Subsequently some authors considered Saccopheronta as
separate genus (Parent, 1938; Vanschuytbroeck, 1951, 1960; Negrobov
e.a., 1981), whereas others included it in Medetera (Dyte, Smith,
1980; Bickel, 1985). The problem is the short and incomplete Becker's
description of the genus and type species, S. nudipes Becker. Original
description of this species strongly differs from many other described
species by such characters as large size (2.7 mm), presence of only 2
rather than 3 dorsocentrals on mesonotum, and absence of apical setae
on all tibiae. Later, Parent (1936) added to S. nudipes so unusual
characters as simple anterior tarsus with regularly decreasing
tarsomeres, and basal part of wing vein M1+2 longer than the apical
one, although it left unclear, did he saw the type specimen of the
species. Parent (1938) redescribed the genus Saccopheronta and
described S. parvilamellata with such unique for the genus characters
as subtriangular first flagellomere and dorsal arista. The most part of
other Afrotropical species, described later under the name
Saccopheronta, have the following features: first flagellomere
rounded, with apical arista; 3 pairs of strong dorsocentral setae;
middle and hind tibiae with one or two short but distinct apical
setae; 2nd tarsomere of anterior tarsus shorter than 3rd, both
somewhat thickened in males in comparison to the next tarsomeres, 3rd
tarsomere sometimes slightly flattened; apical part of M1+2 longer
than the basal one. Body of major part of the species is not longer
than 2.2 mm; only S. fletcheri has body and wing longer than these in
S. nudipes. Nevertheless, all species of Saccopheronta form a separate
group, having such Becker's characters as brown-black (sometimes
metallic green) and weakly pollinose body, long anterior setae on hind
femora, elongate and cylindrical hypopygium with short appendages. These
characters are easily recognized and usually absent in Afrotropical
species of Medetera.
Analyzing excellent reviews of New World and Oriental species of
Medetera recently made by Bickel (1985, 1987) , I noticed a close
relationship of Saccopheronta with the "aberrans" group of species
having strong difference from other species of Medetera. Cladistic
analysis of major Medeterinae groups (Bickel, 1987) showed that the
"aberrans" group together with the Oriental "melanesiana" group has
closer similarity to Dolichophorus Lichtwardt, Thrypticus Gerstaecker,
and Corindia Bickel than to other groups of Medetera. Moreover, this
group of species has specific geographical distribution, biology,
ecology, and even behavior, strongly differing from other species of
Medetera (Bickel, 1985; see also ecological labels to species
described by Negrobov e.a., 1981, and in this paper). Thus, I think
there is no need to keep the "aberrans" group in such a huge (nearly
400 species) and apparently polyphyletic assemblage as Medetera s.l.
and to synonymize Saccopheronta with Medetera. All species of the
"aberrans" group should be transferred to the genus Saccopheronta. The
"melanesiana" group, probably, should be separated as independent
genus of Medeterinae.
Summarizing diagnosis of the "aberrans" group (Bickel, 1987) and
new data on Afrotropical species of Saccopheronta, I can propose the
more detailed diagnosis of the genus.
Body colouration bright metallic green, blue-green to
blue-violet, brown to black, with only thin dusting of pruinosity.
Dorsal postcranium strongly concave. Face and clypeus usually with
pruinosity. Proboscis relatively small, labellae of proboscis weakly
sclerotized. Acrostichals well developed; dorsocentrals strong,
prominent, usually 3 or 4 pairs of setae present; two strong
supraalars present; lateral scutellars well developed. Male anterior
leg usually with 2nd and 3rd tarsomeres enlarged and often flattened.
Posterior and sometimes middle femora in both sexes with 2-5 strong
anterior setae. Posterior tibia with black apico-ventral scale or
tooth-like projection and subapical row of pale dorsal setae. Wing
venation distinctive: M not strongly arched, but lies almost
subparallel to R4+5; basal part of M1+2 usually conspicuously shorter
than apical part; maximum distance between R4+5 and M1+2 usually not
longer than m-cu. Anal vein present as only weak fold of wing.
Hypopygium cylindrical, elongate, more than twice as long as high. 7th
segment relatively short, not forming elongate peduncle. Hypopygial
foramen always dorsolateral in position with tendency to becoming
median. Hypandrium arising from approximately halfway along ventral
margin, not extending distally beyond the position of surstylus;
hypandrial lateral lobi more or less developed, usually distinct.
Aedeagus simple, tubular, without lateral appendages. Epandrial lobi
separate and positioned distad on epandrium; epandrial seta closer to
epandrial lobi than to base of hypandrium. Cercus often with elongate
ventral projection or simple prominence, free, sometimes fused at
base. Surstylus usually simple and undivided in apical half, with more
or less developed projections in basal half. Female oviscapt soft,
short, with non-prominent cercus; tergum 9+10 without apical
The genus Saccopheronta is distributed mainly in New and Old
World Tropics, with 18 Afrotropical, 27 Neotropical and 5 Oriental
species, although 2 species occur in Nearctics (Bickel, 1985).
Probably none species is known from Australia and Palearctic Region.
Nearctic species are frequently swept from wet grasslands, and many
Tropical species appear associated with hydrophilous herbaceous in wet
forests (Negrobov e.a., 1981; Bickel, 1985)
Treating unidentified material from the collections of the
Natural History Museum, London [NHML], the Hungarian Natural History
Museum [HNHM], and Lund University, Sweden [Lund], I found major part
of known Afrotropical species. In this paper S. demeteri sp.n. from
Ethiopia, S. fletcheri sp.n. from Uganda, S. shatalkini sp.n. from
Kenya and Zaire, and S. zicsiana sp.n. from Kenya and Tanzania are
described. New records and key to 18 known species of Afrotropical
Saccopheronta are given.
Holotypes and paratypes of the new species are deposited in the
Natural History Museum (London). Holotypes of S. zicsiana and S.
demeteri are conserved in the Hungarian Natural History Museum.
List of species of Saccopheronta
Saccopheronta, Becker, 1914:125 (as genus); 1923:12 (as subgenus of
Medetera). Type species S. nudipes Becker, 1914, by monotony.
altimontana Negrobov, Vanschuytbroeck, Grichanov, 1981:8 - Zaire,
aperta Negrobov, Vanschuytbroeck, Grichanov, 1981:7 - Zaire, Uganda (!)
arnaudi Negrobov, Vanschuytbroeck, Grichanov, 1981:7 - Zaire, Uganda
(!), Kenya (!)
=vanschuytbroecki Gosseries, 1988: (Medetera), n. comb., n.
caffra Curran, 1927:183 (Medetera) - South Africa, Zaire, Kenya (!),
=turneri Parent, 1934:136 (Medetera), n. comb., n. syn.
=bicolor Parent, 1935:127, n. syn.
=zairensis Dyte, Smith, 1980: (Medetera), n. comb., n. syn.
demeteri sp.n. - Ethiopia
fletcheri sp.n. - Uganda
glabra Negrobov, Vanschuytbroeck, Grichanov, 1981:6 - Zaire
hirsuticosta Parent, 1935:128 - Zaire, Kenya (!)
nigra Vanschuytbroeck, 1960:10 - Zaire
nigritibia Negrobov, Vanschuytbroeck, Grichanov, 1981:9 - Zaire,
Sierra Leone (!)
nudipes Becker, 1914:126 - Kenya
parvilamellata Parent, 1938:412 - Kenya, Zaire
pulchra Vanschuytbroeck, 1951:87 - Zaire
quinta Parent, 1936:16 - Zaire, Uganda (!)
shatalkini sp.n. - Kenya, Zaire
= ulrichi Negrobov, Vanschuytbroeck, Grichanov, 1981:3 (part of
paratypes), n. syn.
subquinta Negrobov, Vanschuytbroeck, Grichanov, 1981:4 - Zaire, Kenya (!)
=quinta sensu Negrobov, Vanschuytbroeck, Grichanov,
1981:figs.15-19 nec Parent (misidentification), n. syn.
ulrichi Negrobov, Vanschuytbroeck, Grichanov, 1981:3 (holotype and
part of paratypes) - Zaire, Uganda (!), Tanzania (!)
zicsiana sp.n. - Tanzania, Kenya
(for references and synonymy see Bickel, 1985)
aberrans Wheeler, 1899:22 (Medetera), n. comb. - Canada, USA
=lobatus Van Duzee, 1914:441 (Medeterus), n. comb.
=flavicosta Van Duzee, 1932:11 (Medeterus), n. comb.
vockerothi Bickel, 1985:32 (Medetera), n. comb. - Canada, USA
(for references and synonymy see Robinson, 1970; Bickel, 1985)
abrupta Van Duzee, 1919:270 (Medetera), n. comb. - Guatemala
albitarsis Van Duzee, 1931:184 (Medetera), n. comb. - Panama, Honduras
amplimanus Van Duzee, 1931:182 (Medetera), n. comb. - Panama
archboldi Robinson, 1975:28 (Medetera), n. comb. - Dominica
bella Van Duzee, 1929:34 (Medetera), n. comb. - Panama
dilatata Becker, 1922:131 (Medetera), n. comb. - Peru, Bolivia
excavata Becker, 1922:132 (Medetera), n. comb. - Bolivia, Peru
flabellifera Becker, 1922:134 (Medetera), n. comb. - Peru
flavides Negrobov, Thuneberg, 1970 (Medetera), n. comb. - Guatemala
=flavipes Van Duzee, 1919:269 (Medetera), n. comb.
jamaicensis Curran, 1928:35 (Medetera), n. comb. - Jamaica
metallica Becker, 1922:135 (Medetera), n. comb. - Peru
minor Becker, 1922:136 (Medetera), n. comb. - Paraguay
nigrimanus Van Duzee, 1931:181 (Medetera), n. comb. - Panama
occidentalis Schiner, 1868:222 (Medetera), n. comb. - Venezuela
ovata Van Duzee, 1931:183 (Medetera), n. comb. - Panama
pallidicornis Van Duzee, 1929:36 (Medetera), n. comb. - Guatemala
pedestris Becker, 1922:137 (Medetera), n. comb. - Colombia, Peru,
planipes Van Duzee, 1919:269 (Medetera), n. comb. - Guatemala
pollinosa Van Duzee, 1929:34 (Medeterus), n. comb. - Panama
scaura Van Duzee, 1929:35 (Medetera), n. comb. - Guatemala
setosa Parent, 1931:18 (Medetera), n. comb. - Peru
spinulata Parent, 1931:19 (Medetera), n. comb. - Peru
steyskali Robinson, 1975:28 (Medetera), n. comb. - Dominica
tarsata Parent, 1931:19 (Medetera), n. comb. - Bolivia
trititarsis Parent, 1928:158 (Medetera), n. comb. - Guatemala,
varipes Van Duzee, 1929:36 (Medetera), n. comb. - Guatemala
viridiventris Van Duzee, 1933:152 (Medetera), n. comb. - Panama
=currani Van Duzee, 1931:182 (Medetera), n. comb.
gomwa Bickel, 1987:210 (Medetera), n. comb. - Papua New Guinea
luzonensis Bickel, 1987:210 (Medetera), n. comb. - Philippines
maai Bickel, 1987:211 (Medetera), n. comb. - Malaysia
mindanensis Bickel, 1987:210 (Medetera), n. comb. - Philippines
platychira de Meijere, 1916:261 (Medeterus); Bickel, 1987:208
(Medetera), n. comb. - Southern China, Indonesia, Malaysia,
Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Bangladesh,
Descriptions and new records
Saccopheronta demeteri sp.n.
Holotype, male, Etiopia: Akaki river, Addis Abeba / No. 55,
29.IX.1980, leg. Demeter [HNHM].
Description. Male. Frons bronze-black, slightly pollinose. A row
of black postocular setae ending with postvertical seta at the top of
eye present. Ocellar tubercle with one pair of strong setae and
several hairs. Ventral postcranium covered with dense long white
irregular hairs. Face bronze-black, slightly pollinose. Ratio of
height of epistome to height of clypeus to is minimal width, 11 : 6 :
5. Scape of antenna yellow-brownish, other segments broken. Palpus
brown, with sparse hairs. Proboscis short, brown.
Thorax metallic blue-green, grey pollinose. Three pairs of strong
dorsocentral setae, the first one half as long as the second, with a
row of several hairs in front of the first seta. Two rows of
acrostichals extending to the second dorsocentral seta. Propleura with
a few white hairs. Scutellum with 2 strong median setae and 2 lateral
setae, 1/3 to 1/2 as long as medians.
Legs mostly yellow with light setulae; all coxae, femora except
apical 1/3, apical tarsomeres of all tarsi brownish. Fore and middle
coxae with light hairs; hind coxa with one light external seta. Fore
legs without setae. Fore tarsus simple. Length ratio of fore coxa to
femora to tibia to tarsus (segments from first to fifth), 21 : 32 : 33
: 14 : 7 : 5 : 5 : 5. Middle tibia with one fine antero-dorsal, one
fine postero-dorsal, and one black apico-ventral setae. Length ratio
of middle coxa to femora to tibia to tarsus (segments from first to
fifth), 16 : 34 : 37 : 20 : 11 : 8 : 5 : 5. Hind femora with a row of
anterior setae in apical half. Hind tibia with a row of fine subapical
dorsal setae, one apico-ventral seta. Length ratio of hind coxa to
femora to tibia to tarsus (segments first to fifth), 12 : 40 : 45 : 12
: 19 : 10 : 5 : 5.
Wings hyaline, veins brown. Costa without long hairs. Ratio of
parts of costa between R2+3 and R4+5 to those between R4+5 and M1+2,
17 : 3. Ratio of apical to basal part of M1+2, 56 : 40. R4+5 and M1+2
nearly parallel at apex. Ratio of cross-vein m-cu to maximal distance
between R4+5 and M1+2 to apical part of CuA1, 7 : 9 : 18. Lower
calypter yellow, with brownish cilia. Halters yellow.
Abdomen dark-brown, with blue-green reflection, with short dark
setae; 7th segment short. Hypopygium dark-brown; epandrium ovate,
slightly elongate. Foramen baso-lateral. Hypandrium thick; lateral
lobi of hypandrium pointed at apex. Epandrial lobi reduced to simple
setae; epandrial seta at base of hypandrium present. Cerci curved
ventrad, narrowed apicad, with three narrow processes at apex.
Surstylus thick, twice as long as high, with strong pedunculate
mid-ventral seta, with three very long undulate apical setae.
Length: body without antennae 1.4 mm, wing-length 1.7 mm,
wing-width 0.5 mm.
Etymology. The species is named for the collector, Dr. Demeter.
Diagnosis. S. demeteri sp. n. is related to S. parvilamellata and
S. caffra, differing by the following complex of characters. Three
dorsocentrals with the first one half as long as the second; at least
the scape yellow-brownish; m-cu distinctly longer than maximum
distance between M and R; surstylus thick, blunt, with three long
undulate apical setae.
Saccopheronta zicsiana sp.n.
Holotype, male, Tanzania: Chemka, Tanga region / 1-18.II.1987,
leg. Mahunka, Zicsi [HNHM].
Paratypes. 2 males, Kenya: 9-13.XII.1970, A.E. Stubbs, B.M.
1972-211 / Karura For., Namibia, 5500 feet. Male, Kenya: 20.XII.1970,
A.E. Stubbs, B.M. 1972-211 / Kakamega Forest, 5200 feet.
Description. Male. Frons and face black, entirely weakly
pollinose. Postocular setae light. Face widest under antennae,
narrowed towards palpi. Ratio of height of epistome to its maximal
width to height of clypeus to its minimal width, 11 : 11 : 6 : 5
(paratype). Antenna short, black, pedicel with incomplete ring of
apical setulae, first flagellomere rounded, as long as high, with
short terminal hairs. Arista apical, pubescent. Length ratio of scape
to pedicel to first flagellomere to arista, 2 : 3 : 4 : 45. Palpus
short, black, with dark seta. Proboscis short, black, with light
Thorax black-brown, with more or less distinct greenish
reflection, weakly pollinose, with brownish setae. Three pairs of
strong dorsocentral setae, two rows of acrostichals. Scutellum with 2
strong median setae and 2 lateral setae, 2/3 length of medians.
Legs including coxae yellow, 5th tarsomere of all tarsi dark.
Fore and middle coxae with white hairs; middle and hind coxae each
with one yellow fine external seta. Fore legs without setae. Fore
femora ventrally with several short yellow hairs. 2nd and 3rd
tarsomeres somewhat thickened in comparison to 4th tarsomere. Length
ratio of fore coxa to femora to tibia to tarsus (segments from first
to fifth), 25 : 35 : 35 : 16 : 5 : 9 : 6 : 5. Middle tibia with one
strong antero-dorsal, two apical setae. Length ratio of middle coxa to
femora to tibia to tarsus (segments from first to fifth), 22 : 45 : 45
: 21 : 10 : 8 : 5 : 5. Hind femora with a row of yellow dorsal setae
in basal half, with several yellow anterior setae in apical half. Hind
tibia with a row of short yellow subapical dorsal setae, with two
short apical setae. Hind basitarsomere with small black baso-ventral
scale. Length ratio of hind coxa to femora to tibia to tarsus
(segments first to fifth), 17 : 50 : 55 : 12 : 18 : 11 : 7 : 6.
Wings yellowish, almost hyaline, veins brown. Costa without long
hairs. Ratio of parts of costa between R2+3 and R4+5 to those between
R4+5 and M1+2, 16 : 4. Ratio of apical to basal part of M1+2, 61 : 40.
R4+5 and M1+2 weakly convergent, nearly parallel at apex. Ratio of
cross-vein m-cu to maximal distance between R4+5 and M1+2 to apical
part of CuA1 to its basal part, 10 : 7 : 26 : 35. Lower calypter
yellow, with light cilia. Halters light-yellow.
Abdomen black, with short light setae; 7th segment short.
Hypopygium dark-brown, oblong, cylindrical. Foramen large, with
tendency to becoming median. Cerci fused at base. Cercus bifurcated,
with thin apex bearing strong seta, dorsally densely setosed;
baso-ventral process very long, thin, slightly curved, with several
interior setae. Surstylus short, swollen at base, thin and setosed at
apex, with several pedunculate ventral setae in basal half, with short
baso-lateral process bearing 2 apical setae. Epandrial lobe thin,
nearly as long as surstylus, bearing strong apical seta. Two simple
pedunculate setae at base of epandrial lobe present. Lateral lobi of
hypandrium enlarged at apex.
Length: body without antennae 1.6-2.0 mm, antenna 0.7 mm,
wing-length 1.8-2.3 mm, wing-width 0.7-0.9 mm.
Distribution: Tanzania, Kenya.
Etymology. The species is named for one of the collectors, Dr.
Diagnosis. S. zicsiana sp. n. is keyed to S. pulchra, differing
by the following characters. Costa without long hairs; lower calypter
yellow with light cilia; halter yellow; cercus deeply bifurcated;
surstylus non-divided, with long setae.
Saccopheronta caffra (Curran)
Material examined. 12 males & 1 female, Kenya: 18-19.XII.1970,
A.E. Stubbs, B.M. 1972-211 / Kakamega Forest, 5200 feet; 2 males,
Kenya: 15-16.XII.1970, A.E. Stubbs. B.M.1972-211 / Lake Nakuru, 5767
feet; male & female, Kenya: Kakamega Forest, Oo15'N, 34o52'E, 5100 ft,
18-22.I.1972, C.F. Huggins, B.M. 1972-468; male, S.A.: Natal,
Zululand, I.1957, N.H.L. Krauss, B.M. 1957-78.
Diagnosis. S. caffra together with S. parvilamellata differs from
other species of Afrotropical Saccopheronta by mostly black femora.
The two species can be distinguished by shape of first flagellomere
and position of arista. S. caffra is, probably, a single species in
the genus, having surstylus split on apex (see figs. 10-14 in Negrobov
Remark. Parent (1934) described a female of Medetera turneri
collected in South A