Four new species of Saccopheronta Becker (Diptera: Dolichopodidae)

from Tropical Africa with notes on the world fauna of the genus

Igor Ya. GRICHANOV

Grichanov, I.Ya. Four new species of Saccopheronta Becker (Diptera:

Dolichopodidae) from Tropical Africa with notes on the world fauna of

the genus

S. demeteri sp.n. from Ethiopia, S. fletcheri sp.n. from Uganda, S.

shatalkini sp.n. from Kenya and Zaire, and S. zicsiana sp.n. from

Kenya and Tanzania are described. New records and key to 18 known

species of Afrotropical Saccopheronta are given. 2 Nearctic, 27

Neotropical, and 5 Oriental species of "aberrans" group of Medetera

are transferred to the genus Saccopheronta. Four names are

synonymized.

I.Ya. Grichanov, All-Russian Institute of Plant Protection,

Podbelskogo 3, St.Petersburg-Pushkin, 189620, Russia.

Key words: Diptera, Dolichopodidae, Saccopheronta, Tropical Africa.

Introduction

Saccopheronta was established by Becker (1914) as a genus of

Medeterinae. In 1923 Becker regarded it as subgenus of Medetera Fisher

von Waldheim. Subsequently some authors considered Saccopheronta as

separate genus (Parent, 1938; Vanschuytbroeck, 1951, 1960; Negrobov

e.a., 1981), whereas others included it in Medetera (Dyte, Smith,

1980; Bickel, 1985). The problem is the short and incomplete Becker's

description of the genus and type species, S. nudipes Becker. Original

description of this species strongly differs from many other described

species by such characters as large size (2.7 mm), presence of only 2

rather than 3 dorsocentrals on mesonotum, and absence of apical setae

on all tibiae. Later, Parent (1936) added to S. nudipes so unusual

characters as simple anterior tarsus with regularly decreasing

tarsomeres, and basal part of wing vein M1+2 longer than the apical

one, although it left unclear, did he saw the type specimen of the

species. Parent (1938) redescribed the genus Saccopheronta and

described S. parvilamellata with such unique for the genus characters

as subtriangular first flagellomere and dorsal arista. The most part of

other Afrotropical species, described later under the name

Saccopheronta, have the following features: first flagellomere

rounded, with apical arista; 3 pairs of strong dorsocentral setae;

middle and hind tibiae with one or two short but distinct apical

setae; 2nd tarsomere of anterior tarsus shorter than 3rd, both

somewhat thickened in males in comparison to the next tarsomeres, 3rd

tarsomere sometimes slightly flattened; apical part of M1+2 longer

than the basal one. Body of major part of the species is not longer

than 2.2 mm; only S. fletcheri has body and wing longer than these in

S. nudipes. Nevertheless, all species of Saccopheronta form a separate

group, having such Becker's characters as brown-black (sometimes

metallic green) and weakly pollinose body, long anterior setae on hind

femora, elongate and cylindrical hypopygium with short appendages. These

characters are easily recognized and usually absent in Afrotropical

species of Medetera.

Analyzing excellent reviews of New World and Oriental species of

Medetera recently made by Bickel (1985, 1987) , I noticed a close

relationship of Saccopheronta with the "aberrans" group of species

having strong difference from other species of Medetera. Cladistic

analysis of major Medeterinae groups (Bickel, 1987) showed that the

"aberrans" group together with the Oriental "melanesiana" group has

closer similarity to Dolichophorus Lichtwardt, Thrypticus Gerstaecker,

and Corindia Bickel than to other groups of Medetera. Moreover, this

group of species has specific geographical distribution, biology,

ecology, and even behavior, strongly differing from other species of

Medetera (Bickel, 1985; see also ecological labels to species

described by Negrobov e.a., 1981, and in this paper). Thus, I think

there is no need to keep the "aberrans" group in such a huge (nearly

400 species) and apparently polyphyletic assemblage as Medetera s.l.

and to synonymize Saccopheronta with Medetera. All species of the

"aberrans" group should be transferred to the genus Saccopheronta. The

"melanesiana" group, probably, should be separated as independent

genus of Medeterinae.

Summarizing diagnosis of the "aberrans" group (Bickel, 1987) and

new data on Afrotropical species of Saccopheronta, I can propose the

more detailed diagnosis of the genus.

Body colouration bright metallic green, blue-green to

blue-violet, brown to black, with only thin dusting of pruinosity.

Dorsal postcranium strongly concave. Face and clypeus usually with

pruinosity. Proboscis relatively small, labellae of proboscis weakly

sclerotized. Acrostichals well developed; dorsocentrals strong,

prominent, usually 3 or 4 pairs of setae present; two strong

supraalars present; lateral scutellars well developed. Male anterior

leg usually with 2nd and 3rd tarsomeres enlarged and often flattened.

Posterior and sometimes middle femora in both sexes with 2-5 strong

anterior setae. Posterior tibia with black apico-ventral scale or

tooth-like projection and subapical row of pale dorsal setae. Wing

venation distinctive: M not strongly arched, but lies almost

subparallel to R4+5; basal part of M1+2 usually conspicuously shorter

than apical part; maximum distance between R4+5 and M1+2 usually not

longer than m-cu. Anal vein present as only weak fold of wing.

Hypopygium cylindrical, elongate, more than twice as long as high. 7th

segment relatively short, not forming elongate peduncle. Hypopygial

foramen always dorsolateral in position with tendency to becoming

median. Hypandrium arising from approximately halfway along ventral

margin, not extending distally beyond the position of surstylus;

hypandrial lateral lobi more or less developed, usually distinct.

Aedeagus simple, tubular, without lateral appendages. Epandrial lobi

separate and positioned distad on epandrium; epandrial seta closer to

epandrial lobi than to base of hypandrium. Cercus often with elongate

ventral projection or simple prominence, free, sometimes fused at

base. Surstylus usually simple and undivided in apical half, with more

or less developed projections in basal half. Female oviscapt soft,

short, with non-prominent cercus; tergum 9+10 without apical

projections (acanthophorites).

The genus Saccopheronta is distributed mainly in New and Old

World Tropics, with 18 Afrotropical, 27 Neotropical and 5 Oriental

species, although 2 species occur in Nearctics (Bickel, 1985).

Probably none species is known from Australia and Palearctic Region.

Nearctic species are frequently swept from wet grasslands, and many

Tropical species appear associated with hydrophilous herbaceous in wet

forests (Negrobov e.a., 1981; Bickel, 1985)

Treating unidentified material from the collections of the

Natural History Museum, London [NHML], the Hungarian Natural History

Museum [HNHM], and Lund University, Sweden [Lund], I found major part

of known Afrotropical species. In this paper S. demeteri sp.n. from

Ethiopia, S. fletcheri sp.n. from Uganda, S. shatalkini sp.n. from

Kenya and Zaire, and S. zicsiana sp.n. from Kenya and Tanzania are

described. New records and key to 18 known species of Afrotropical

Saccopheronta are given.

Holotypes and paratypes of the new species are deposited in the

Natural History Museum (London). Holotypes of S. zicsiana and S.

demeteri are conserved in the Hungarian Natural History Museum.

List of species of Saccopheronta

Saccopheronta, Becker, 1914:125 (as genus); 1923:12 (as subgenus of

Medetera). Type species S. nudipes Becker, 1914, by monotony.

Afrotropical Region

altimontana Negrobov, Vanschuytbroeck, Grichanov, 1981:8 - Zaire,

Uganda (!)

aperta Negrobov, Vanschuytbroeck, Grichanov, 1981:7 - Zaire, Uganda (!)

arnaudi Negrobov, Vanschuytbroeck, Grichanov, 1981:7 - Zaire, Uganda

(!), Kenya (!)

=vanschuytbroecki Gosseries, 1988:[304] (Medetera), n. comb., n.

syn.

caffra Curran, 1927:183 (Medetera) - South Africa, Zaire, Kenya (!),

?Madagascar

=turneri Parent, 1934:136 (Medetera), n. comb., n. syn.

=bicolor Parent, 1935:127, n. syn.

=zairensis Dyte, Smith, 1980:[443] (Medetera), n. comb., n. syn.

demeteri sp.n. - Ethiopia

fletcheri sp.n. - Uganda

glabra Negrobov, Vanschuytbroeck, Grichanov, 1981:6 - Zaire

hirsuticosta Parent, 1935:128 - Zaire, Kenya (!)

nigra Vanschuytbroeck, 1960:10 - Zaire

nigritibia Negrobov, Vanschuytbroeck, Grichanov, 1981:9 - Zaire,

Sierra Leone (!)

nudipes Becker, 1914:126 - Kenya

parvilamellata Parent, 1938:412 - Kenya, Zaire

pulchra Vanschuytbroeck, 1951:87 - Zaire

quinta Parent, 1936:16 - Zaire, Uganda (!)

shatalkini sp.n. - Kenya, Zaire

= ulrichi Negrobov, Vanschuytbroeck, Grichanov, 1981:3 (part of

paratypes), n. syn.

subquinta Negrobov, Vanschuytbroeck, Grichanov, 1981:4 - Zaire, Kenya (!)

=quinta sensu Negrobov, Vanschuytbroeck, Grichanov,

1981:figs.15-19 nec Parent (misidentification), n. syn.

ulrichi Negrobov, Vanschuytbroeck, Grichanov, 1981:3 (holotype and

part of paratypes) - Zaire, Uganda (!), Tanzania (!)

zicsiana sp.n. - Tanzania, Kenya

Nearctic Region

(for references and synonymy see Bickel, 1985)

aberrans Wheeler, 1899:22 (Medetera), n. comb. - Canada, USA

=lobatus Van Duzee, 1914:441 (Medeterus), n. comb.

=flavicosta Van Duzee, 1932:11 (Medeterus), n. comb.

vockerothi Bickel, 1985:32 (Medetera), n. comb. - Canada, USA

Neotropical Region

(for references and synonymy see Robinson, 1970; Bickel, 1985)

abrupta Van Duzee, 1919:270 (Medetera), n. comb. - Guatemala

albitarsis Van Duzee, 1931:184 (Medetera), n. comb. - Panama, Honduras

amplimanus Van Duzee, 1931:182 (Medetera), n. comb. - Panama

archboldi Robinson, 1975:28 (Medetera), n. comb. - Dominica

bella Van Duzee, 1929:34 (Medetera), n. comb. - Panama

dilatata Becker, 1922:131 (Medetera), n. comb. - Peru, Bolivia

excavata Becker, 1922:132 (Medetera), n. comb. - Bolivia, Peru

flabellifera Becker, 1922:134 (Medetera), n. comb. - Peru

flavides Negrobov, Thuneberg, 1970 (Medetera), n. comb. - Guatemala

=flavipes Van Duzee, 1919:269 (Medetera), n. comb.

jamaicensis Curran, 1928:35 (Medetera), n. comb. - Jamaica

metallica Becker, 1922:135 (Medetera), n. comb. - Peru

minor Becker, 1922:136 (Medetera), n. comb. - Paraguay

nigrimanus Van Duzee, 1931:181 (Medetera), n. comb. - Panama

occidentalis Schiner, 1868:222 (Medetera), n. comb. - Venezuela

ovata Van Duzee, 1931:183 (Medetera), n. comb. - Panama

pallidicornis Van Duzee, 1929:36 (Medetera), n. comb. - Guatemala

pedestris Becker, 1922:137 (Medetera), n. comb. - Colombia, Peru,

Surinam

planipes Van Duzee, 1919:269 (Medetera), n. comb. - Guatemala

pollinosa Van Duzee, 1929:34 (Medeterus), n. comb. - Panama

scaura Van Duzee, 1929:35 (Medetera), n. comb. - Guatemala

setosa Parent, 1931:18 (Medetera), n. comb. - Peru

spinulata Parent, 1931:19 (Medetera), n. comb. - Peru

steyskali Robinson, 1975:28 (Medetera), n. comb. - Dominica

tarsata Parent, 1931:19 (Medetera), n. comb. - Bolivia

trititarsis Parent, 1928:158 (Medetera), n. comb. - Guatemala,

Costa Rica

varipes Van Duzee, 1929:36 (Medetera), n. comb. - Guatemala

viridiventris Van Duzee, 1933:152 (Medetera), n. comb. - Panama

=currani Van Duzee, 1931:182 (Medetera), n. comb.

Oriental Region

gomwa Bickel, 1987:210 (Medetera), n. comb. - Papua New Guinea

luzonensis Bickel, 1987:210 (Medetera), n. comb. - Philippines

maai Bickel, 1987:211 (Medetera), n. comb. - Malaysia

mindanensis Bickel, 1987:210 (Medetera), n. comb. - Philippines

platychira de Meijere, 1916:261 (Medeterus); Bickel, 1987:208

(Medetera), n. comb. - Southern China, Indonesia, Malaysia,

Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Bangladesh,

India

Descriptions and new records

Saccopheronta demeteri sp.n.

(Fig. 1)

Holotype, male, Etiopia: Akaki river, Addis Abeba / No. 55,

29.IX.1980, leg. Demeter [HNHM].

Description. Male. Frons bronze-black, slightly pollinose. A row

of black postocular setae ending with postvertical seta at the top of

eye present. Ocellar tubercle with one pair of strong setae and

several hairs. Ventral postcranium covered with dense long white

irregular hairs. Face bronze-black, slightly pollinose. Ratio of

height of epistome to height of clypeus to is minimal width, 11 : 6 :

5. Scape of antenna yellow-brownish, other segments broken. Palpus

brown, with sparse hairs. Proboscis short, brown.

Thorax metallic blue-green, grey pollinose. Three pairs of strong

dorsocentral setae, the first one half as long as the second, with a

row of several hairs in front of the first seta. Two rows of

acrostichals extending to the second dorsocentral seta. Propleura with

a few white hairs. Scutellum with 2 strong median setae and 2 lateral

setae, 1/3 to 1/2 as long as medians.

Legs mostly yellow with light setulae; all coxae, femora except

apical 1/3, apical tarsomeres of all tarsi brownish. Fore and middle

coxae with light hairs; hind coxa with one light external seta. Fore

legs without setae. Fore tarsus simple. Length ratio of fore coxa to

femora to tibia to tarsus (segments from first to fifth), 21 : 32 : 33

: 14 : 7 : 5 : 5 : 5. Middle tibia with one fine antero-dorsal, one

fine postero-dorsal, and one black apico-ventral setae. Length ratio

of middle coxa to femora to tibia to tarsus (segments from first to

fifth), 16 : 34 : 37 : 20 : 11 : 8 : 5 : 5. Hind femora with a row of

anterior setae in apical half. Hind tibia with a row of fine subapical

dorsal setae, one apico-ventral seta. Length ratio of hind coxa to

femora to tibia to tarsus (segments first to fifth), 12 : 40 : 45 : 12

: 19 : 10 : 5 : 5.

Wings hyaline, veins brown. Costa without long hairs. Ratio of

parts of costa between R2+3 and R4+5 to those between R4+5 and M1+2,

17 : 3. Ratio of apical to basal part of M1+2, 56 : 40. R4+5 and M1+2

nearly parallel at apex. Ratio of cross-vein m-cu to maximal distance

between R4+5 and M1+2 to apical part of CuA1, 7 : 9 : 18. Lower

calypter yellow, with brownish cilia. Halters yellow.

Abdomen dark-brown, with blue-green reflection, with short dark

setae; 7th segment short. Hypopygium dark-brown; epandrium ovate,

slightly elongate. Foramen baso-lateral. Hypandrium thick; lateral

lobi of hypandrium pointed at apex. Epandrial lobi reduced to simple

setae; epandrial seta at base of hypandrium present. Cerci curved

ventrad, narrowed apicad, with three narrow processes at apex.

Surstylus thick, twice as long as high, with strong pedunculate

mid-ventral seta, with three very long undulate apical setae.

Female unknown.

Length: body without antennae 1.4 mm, wing-length 1.7 mm,

wing-width 0.5 mm.

Distribution: Ethiopia.

Etymology. The species is named for the collector, Dr. Demeter.

Diagnosis. S. demeteri sp. n. is related to S. parvilamellata and

S. caffra, differing by the following complex of characters. Three

dorsocentrals with the first one half as long as the second; at least

the scape yellow-brownish; m-cu distinctly longer than maximum

distance between M and R; surstylus thick, blunt, with three long

undulate apical setae.

Saccopheronta zicsiana sp.n.

(Fig. 2)

Holotype, male, Tanzania: Chemka, Tanga region / 1-18.II.1987,

leg. Mahunka, Zicsi [HNHM].

Paratypes. 2 males, Kenya: 9-13.XII.1970, A.E. Stubbs, B.M.

1972-211 / Karura For., Namibia, 5500 feet. Male, Kenya: 20.XII.1970,

A.E. Stubbs, B.M. 1972-211 / Kakamega Forest, 5200 feet.

Description. Male. Frons and face black, entirely weakly

pollinose. Postocular setae light. Face widest under antennae,

narrowed towards palpi. Ratio of height of epistome to its maximal

width to height of clypeus to its minimal width, 11 : 11 : 6 : 5

(paratype). Antenna short, black, pedicel with incomplete ring of

apical setulae, first flagellomere rounded, as long as high, with

short terminal hairs. Arista apical, pubescent. Length ratio of scape

to pedicel to first flagellomere to arista, 2 : 3 : 4 : 45. Palpus

short, black, with dark seta. Proboscis short, black, with light

hairs.

Thorax black-brown, with more or less distinct greenish

reflection, weakly pollinose, with brownish setae. Three pairs of

strong dorsocentral setae, two rows of acrostichals. Scutellum with 2

strong median setae and 2 lateral setae, 2/3 length of medians.

Legs including coxae yellow, 5th tarsomere of all tarsi dark.

Fore and middle coxae with white hairs; middle and hind coxae each

with one yellow fine external seta. Fore legs without setae. Fore

femora ventrally with several short yellow hairs. 2nd and 3rd

tarsomeres somewhat thickened in comparison to 4th tarsomere. Length

ratio of fore coxa to femora to tibia to tarsus (segments from first

to fifth), 25 : 35 : 35 : 16 : 5 : 9 : 6 : 5. Middle tibia with one

strong antero-dorsal, two apical setae. Length ratio of middle coxa to

femora to tibia to tarsus (segments from first to fifth), 22 : 45 : 45

: 21 : 10 : 8 : 5 : 5. Hind femora with a row of yellow dorsal setae

in basal half, with several yellow anterior setae in apical half. Hind

tibia with a row of short yellow subapical dorsal setae, with two

short apical setae. Hind basitarsomere with small black baso-ventral

scale. Length ratio of hind coxa to femora to tibia to tarsus

(segments first to fifth), 17 : 50 : 55 : 12 : 18 : 11 : 7 : 6.

Wings yellowish, almost hyaline, veins brown. Costa without long

hairs. Ratio of parts of costa between R2+3 and R4+5 to those between

R4+5 and M1+2, 16 : 4. Ratio of apical to basal part of M1+2, 61 : 40.

R4+5 and M1+2 weakly convergent, nearly parallel at apex. Ratio of

cross-vein m-cu to maximal distance between R4+5 and M1+2 to apical

part of CuA1 to its basal part, 10 : 7 : 26 : 35. Lower calypter

yellow, with light cilia. Halters light-yellow.

Abdomen black, with short light setae; 7th segment short.

Hypopygium dark-brown, oblong, cylindrical. Foramen large, with

tendency to becoming median. Cerci fused at base. Cercus bifurcated,

with thin apex bearing strong seta, dorsally densely setosed;

baso-ventral process very long, thin, slightly curved, with several

interior setae. Surstylus short, swollen at base, thin and setosed at

apex, with several pedunculate ventral setae in basal half, with short

baso-lateral process bearing 2 apical setae. Epandrial lobe thin,

nearly as long as surstylus, bearing strong apical seta. Two simple

pedunculate setae at base of epandrial lobe present. Lateral lobi of

hypandrium enlarged at apex.

Female unknown.

Length: body without antennae 1.6-2.0 mm, antenna 0.7 mm,

wing-length 1.8-2.3 mm, wing-width 0.7-0.9 mm.

Distribution: Tanzania, Kenya.

Etymology. The species is named for one of the collectors, Dr.

Zicsi.

Diagnosis. S. zicsiana sp. n. is keyed to S. pulchra, differing

by the following characters. Costa without long hairs; lower calypter

yellow with light cilia; halter yellow; cercus deeply bifurcated;

surstylus non-divided, with long setae.

Saccopheronta caffra (Curran)

Material examined. 12 males & 1 female, Kenya: 18-19.XII.1970,

A.E. Stubbs, B.M. 1972-211 / Kakamega Forest, 5200 feet; 2 males,

Kenya: 15-16.XII.1970, A.E. Stubbs. B.M.1972-211 / Lake Nakuru, 5767

feet; male & female, Kenya: Kakamega Forest, Oo15'N, 34o52'E, 5100 ft,

18-22.I.1972, C.F. Huggins, B.M. 1972-468; male, S.A.: Natal,

Zululand, I.1957, N.H.L. Krauss, B.M. 1957-78.

Diagnosis. S. caffra together with S. parvilamellata differs from

other species of Afrotropical Saccopheronta by mostly black femora.

The two species can be distinguished by shape of first flagellomere

and position of arista. S. caffra is, probably, a single species in

the genus, having surstylus split on apex (see figs. 10-14 in Negrobov

e.a., 1981).

Remark. Parent (1934) described a female of Medetera turneri

collected in South A